blog

the same other side

My grandmother loved The Sound of Music – especially the first five minutes. The opening scene of the movie features a mountainous landscape that was familiar to her, having grown up in the regional town of Celje in Slovenia. She would watch the opening scene and comment on how it reminded her of her youth and hometown, of times before the war and before her migration to Australia in the 1950s.

After my grandmother passed away at the beginning of the turn of the century, I have revisited this scene many times in an attempt see what my grandmother saw on the other side of the mountains, beyond the forest, in the river and up in the sky. As an Australian-Slovenian who has never been to Slovenia, my personal experience of my grandmother’s response to the first 5 minutes of the Sound of Music is a potent symbol of what it is like to have a connection and feel an empathy for a place that you have only experienced through the partially-told stories, actions and emotions of another.

Having no primary experience of Celje myself, my image of this village, Slovenia and my cultural heritage and present is tied to a desire to see what was lies beyond and behind those mountains, forests, river and sky. Trying to augment my view to catch a glimpse of what my grandmother was looking at but succeeding only in being able to slow down and reverse what is being presented to me. This is the basis of a new work I’m currently creating, which will be presented in January 2018. More details to come.

Work in progress.

Work in progress.

beyond social order

Avgust Černigoj, untitled collage, n.d.

Avgust Černigoj, untitled collage, n.d.

Avgust Černigoj (pronounced: aou-gust che-rnivoy) was a significant Yugoslav-era Slovenian Constructivist artist and activist. Although he only spent one semester at the school Černigoj’s oeuvre was strongly informed by his studies at the Bauhaus School in Weimar, from which he fashioned and exhibited his own style of Constructivism in Ljubljana, Slovenia between 1924 and 1925 and afterwards in Trieste, Italy from 1925 to 1929.

Informed by the artistic, architectural and social ideologies of Russian Constructivism Černigoj’s new-world vision was radical; through creative enterprise he sought to overturn even the most fundamental aspects of social order. Taking a propagandist and provocative approach Černigoj created work in a wide range of media including collage, architectural models, machines, sculptures, theatre sets and politically artist slogans to name a few.

Mixed with Italian Futurism and mystical Zenithism Černigoj’s version of Constructivism is vibrant, future-looking, technical and phenomenological – each work one part of an evolving and ever-shifting maxim of modern order.

Click here to read the fascination exhibition catalogue for the 1978 Avgust Černigoj retrospective at the Municipal Gallery of Idrija (in collaboration with the Architectural Museum, Ljubljana) created by Aleksander Bassin in Peter Krečič. English translations available.

fish above water

Art as a cultural output that is produced, circulated and consumed within economic systems by multiple agents (most of whom are unknown to the artist) can be a difficult concept for artist to reconcile with. This is particularly true for artists whose outputs have deep connections to social practice and personal narratives, and in my own case, personal narratives that are connected to a particular community’s history and story by association only. When a work is created within these contexts, what responsibility does the artist have in regards to ongoing cultural representation now and into the future?

As I continue to make art in response to my own understanding of my cultural heritage, identity and legacy (which is quite fragmented and unclear) I can’t help but wonder about the potential for any outcome, good or bad, to impact others. Particularly when it comes to art that reflects my own understanding and knowledge of culture, which itself is not necessarily in-line with dominate frameworks and rules related to how, when and to whom certain stories are told and with what voice.

Are there times when culture, no matter how well understood or deeply connected the individual is to that culture, should not be pursued in art?

Ren Gregorčič, constructive (detail), 2018.

Ren Gregorčič, constructive (detail), 2018.

likeness over convention

Next month I’m heading to the National Gallery of Australia (NGA) in Canberra to see the Pre-Raphaelite exhibition ‘Love & Desire.’ I have to admit that I’m not a huge fan of the PRB (Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) style, however I appreciate the significance of the movement as one that rejected the cannon of picture-making that had dominated painting since the Renaissance and thereby contributing immensely to modern-day art practice as we know it.

Coinciding with the 1848 release of Friedrich Engels and Karl Max’s ‘The Communist Manifesto’, the beginning of the PRB movement was marked by a fervent desire to distance themselves from the rigid painting methods enforced by the Royal Academy (which emphasised form, colour and pyramidal composition).

Instead the PRB sought to pursue a more socially-relevant painting style that was not based on formulas nor conventions. The PRB rejected the dogma of those who perpetuated the dominant painting method of imitating the style of the 16th century artist Raphael. Instead they referred to Italian artwork produced before the time of Raphael, which emphasised likeness rather than idealisation, hence; before (pre) the Raphaelites (the people who enforced the conventionalisation of painting based on their own understanding of how Raphael made his).

Over the five years that the PRB were active as a group, their pursuit of likeness gradually intermingled with the rise of scientific understanding to produce works with scientific fidelity, precision, attention to natural forms and according to the rules of observation.

John Everett Millais. Christ in the House of His Parents (The Carpenter’s Shop) (1849–50).

John Everett Millais. Christ in the House of His Parents (The Carpenter’s Shop) (1849–50).

On paradise

On November 4th 2018, eligible citizens of New Caledonia cast their vote on whether the nation would remain a part of France or gain independence. The result, 56.4% against and 43.6% in favour of independence, is a reminder of the modern-day experiences of colonisation by First Nations peoples as well as the complexities of colonial spatial identity which often result in changed human-nature relationships.

Referring to the name given to the northeast of the central island by James Cook in the 1770s (apparently Captain Cook considered the land form to be reminiscent of Scotland, or Caledonia in Latin) New Caledonia is a popular tourist destination with a complex history. I recently visited the French territory to see how spatial modernity has influenced human-nature relationships, particularly within the context of sites with a high tourist density. This research has been informed by my recent investigations into the concepts of leisure and luxury. More information to come.

Video still from the ‘Malibu’ film clip by Hole, 1998.

Video still from the ‘Malibu’ film clip by Hole, 1998.

without hierarchy or transition

How much of our aesthetic ideals are influenced by structural or moral hierarchy? Can the pursuit of gesamtkunstwerk (a philosophy of egalitarian art-creation commonly linked with German theatre director and composer Richard Wagner) ever result in the realisation of artwork that is without hierarchy or transition?

Are ‘common’ aesthetic values simply the consequences of programming decisions made by gatekeepers and self-appointed taste makers? Does the recent proclivity towards the deadpan in many forms of art (specifically photography) herald the dawn of a gesamtkunstwerk-ian utopia or signal the imminent dominance of impotent, bland appeasenik aesthetics that doesn’t quite live up to the legacy of 90’s grunge youth culture?

Is the future definition of art that which emphasises ‘mood’ (an intuitive feeling often develops slowly over time in response to a catalyst but that is not reliant on contextualisation or stimulus) over ‘emotion’ (an intuitive feeling that is neither knowledge nor reasoning and is shaped through context and association)?

Just some of the questions I’m currently mulling over while I put together exhibition applications for 2019.

short-term destinies

According to many news sources, on October 13th the state of Victoria (Australia) experienced a heatwave that nearly broke records. As ‘the hottest day on record…’, ‘the coldest morning in summer for 100 years…’, ‘the worst recorded disaster…’, ‘the first time in known history…’ continue to frequently make news headlines accompanied by the predictable ‘did you hear that it was nearly 33 degrees? In October, can you believe it?’, ‘It was so cold this morning (Valley girl accent)’ chitchat, I couldn’t help but wonder whether there are links between reports of pleasure and misfortune and severe weather events.

According to Tom Stafford, writing for the BBC (read the full article here), referencing research conduced by Marc Trussler and Stuart Sorok at McGill University (Canada), when presented with an option to watch a news story on a negative or positive tone, people will chose to watch news items with a negative tone. Apparently this is the result of a ‘negativity bias’, which is explained as term that describes our ‘collective hunger to hear, and remember bad news.’ Results were also framed within the context of ‘Illusory superiority’ (another form of cognitive bias whereby we ‘overestimate our strengths and underestimate our shortcomings in comparison to other people’); against the backdrop of the pleasant views we have of our world, bad news is a surprising, dramatic and sometimes enticing interjection that mirrors the action of many movies.

I think these psychological biases are important things to consider when making art that engages with the topic of climate change. Very often ‘climate art’ borrows from disaster-aesthetics which, considering the aforementioned may not be achieving it’s intended purpose of influencing positive change. Rather, climate art that borrows from disaster-aesthetics might be re-enforcing the disaster spectacle that is experienced by an ‘other’. If meta-cognition breaks down iIllusory superiority, perhaps this is what we need to be aiming for in art.

Come Hell or High Water, Michael Pinsky, 2006 .

Come Hell or High Water, Michael Pinsky, 2006 .

complex adaptation

400% bonus has its origins in my research into the legacy of colonialism and global modernity (the contemporary condition or quality of what it means when we refer to something as being ‘modern’) as a Western imperial tradition centred on the conquering and claiming of territories.

The biological adaptation of soursobs is the perfect example of this legacy; ecological systems are disrupted by human activity on claimed territories which induces the need for a new equilibrium. And as nature disentangles itself from Western imperial narratives by achieving re-balanced states, some difficult questions begin to form: how do we (as individuals and collectively) reconcile with inherited Western imperial narratives? Can we accept that these narratives are fallible constructs? How do we allow for natural, local systems to re-surface? Will we ever be able to accept the ‘known world’ as non-ridged, non-mathematical and non-predictable? And can we accept that the widely-accepted position of human knowledge as objective needs to be dismantled and replaced with ambiguity in order to sustain life on Earth?

Ren Gregorčič, 400% bonus (installation detail), 2018.

Ren Gregorčič, 400% bonus (installation detail), 2018.

performing the supermodern

On October 2nd I’m excited to be opening ‘400% bonus’ at the Library at the Dock in Melbourne, Australia; a site-specific installation created by me that uses light and colour to emphasise the changed biological processes of the weed Oxalis pes caprae (that have resulted as a consequence of recent human intervention with the plant). The work is heavily informed by supermoderist (otherwise known as hypermoderist) theory.

In 400% bonus, the physical and biological attributes of Oxalis pes caprae are replaced by laser-cut yellow and dichroic acrylic films which generate effects that exaggerate the plant’s qualities (specifically the strong yellow colour of its flowers and dynamic internal structures). These effects are produced in response to the intensity and position of the sun (as well as other light sources) and the relative position of he viewer. The effects created by the acrylic film drive the preformative aspects of the work - individuals experience and perform the saturation of their senses by engaging the installation, which is then observed by spectators.

Biology, human interaction and technology converge to create a work that is not didactic, representative nor bound by material limitations. Instead 400% bonus, like Oxalis pes caprae, seeks to go beyond one hundred per cent; beyond what is considered possible or knowable and where imitation is able to reveal a reality independent of form.

400% is officially being launched between 1-2pm on Saturday October 6th at the Library at the Dock in Melbourne (107 Victoria Harbour Promenade, Docklands VIC 3008). All welcome.

Ren Gregorčič, 400% bonus, 2018. Yellow and dichroic acrylic film.

Ren Gregorčič, 400% bonus, 2018. Yellow and dichroic acrylic film.

what it takes to make a dollar shine

At the start of 2018, renowned photographer Nan Goldin very bravely made her struggles with the highly potent and addictive opioid OxyContin (known as Oxycodone in Australia) public (read Goldin’s essay here). Commonly prescribed by doctors to treat moderate and severe pain, OxyCotin is produced by Purdue Pharmaceuticals, which is owned by the Sackler Family.

This family name is well-known to the art world. The Sackler Family have and continue to donate millions of dollars to the arts and culture in the USA and globally through numerous philanthropic programs. It is not an overstatement to say the arts globally have substantially benefited from Sackler Family philanthropy.

 So you can imagine the collective, abject shock of artists and arts workers worldwide when it was widely reported in January 2018 (including in the Guardian, click here) that since 1999 OxyContin and other opioids have been linked to more than 200,000 overdose deaths in the USA alone. Then came the realisation; profits from OxyContin, a drug that has been linked to overdose deaths across the globe, has and continues to fund a significant portion of US, UK and other international arts institutions, programs and even artworks and cultural programs. A situation that has come to be known as the ‘Sackler dilemma’.

 Nan Goldin has advocated for cultural institutions to stop accepting financial donations from the Sacklers. However, with the continued presence of the Sackler family and Purdue at the highest levels of influence in cultural organisations (i.e. current Purdue Board Member and V&A Trustee Theresa Sackler) it is hard to imagine that such an outcome is likely. One also wonders whether museums and galleries could survive such a fallout in funding.

 So here we are, in the dilemma. The question is, how did we get into this situation in the first place?

territories beyond sculpture in the expanded field

Sculpture in the Expanded Field by Rosalind Krauss is a well-discussed and significant theory of sculptural practice post-1960s. Published in 1985, the theory is still today (some 33 years later) referred to a guiding text for contemporary practice. However, can a text written in 1985 and the theory of post-modernism it refers to still be ‘contemporary’? Have the tenets of art shifted, and if so, in what direction?

The above are posed as rhetorical questions, however I do believe that the avant-garde of today is distinctly different in its cause and outcomes. Although linked to post-modernism, the art that I feel ‘succeeds’ (a definition that I will discuss at a later point) as art in the present day is work that makes a conscious effort to extend beyond the limits of post-modernity by emphasising human experience (and one that isn’t restricted to art-audiences). In this present-day art that I am encountering and myself trying to make within, the post-modern condition is negotiated rather than presented formally and the ‘hand of the artist’ is not elevated. It is distinctly non-architectural and non-structural.

I am also finding, more and more, that there is a tiredness in the ambiguity of post-modern (art created in the expanded field) works. That works created in this framework lacks the present-day emergence of intuitive sensation and the ecstasy that comes with a personal processing and understanding of complexity. To be modern (and by extension, to be relevant) now, is to engage others through art as a mental activity as opposed to seeking to present or represent objective reality. As far as I can see, to engage others in art as a mental activity, one must to point towards, but not at, art. The present-day contemporary accepts that it can engage in neither truth nor proof and instead functions as post-logical conceptions of sculptural occurrences where complexity itself is the medium.

 At least, that’s how I see it.

art on disguise

Throughout my career, ‘truth to materials’ has been upheld as the truest, purest virtue in contemporary sculpture. Lately though, I’ve been questioning the validity of this architectural concept. Not because I disagree with the concept necessarily, but because of what it masks. If everything is presented as it is, are we ever really looking at the hidden and sometimes intentionally obscured manufacturing process from which our modern world originates? Can we live in an environmentally sustainable-focused world and continue to be ‘true to materials’? Can we trust what is presented to us as ‘true’?

It’s interesting to consider the validity of ‘truth to materials’ in terms of the oeuvre of Robin Page (notably Baumgeist, Tree Spirit), an oeuvre that turned the ‘truth’ of materials (conscious of the term ‘truth’ to be a social as opposed to actual reality) on itself. Mocking commercialism and art itself Page’s anarchisms (with roots in Fluxus) often function to reveal what is beyond a material or our expectations of it, what it does or should functions (in a human sense). Perhaps to reach a sustainable future we have to accept that there is no ‘truth’? That truth is a manifestation of expectation, and a human desire to make patterns and design determine universal formula? What if we don’t believe in truth?

Robin Page, Baumgeist (Tree Spirit), 1972.

Robin Page, Baumgeist (Tree Spirit), 1972.

higher than the highest low

As a part of my upcoming collaboration with Mona Ruijs of Sound Interventions (http://soundinterventions.com.au/) for Melbourne Fringe Festival 2018, 'you probably don't know but you've already won', I've been re-reading the catalogue essays in 'Dear Painter, paint me---'. If you haven't read it, it's high on the recommendation list (Meta-Trash by Sabine Folie and Kitsch in the Age of Painterly Reproduction by Blaenka Perica in particular).

I've been re-reading the catalogue essays because they present an interesting premise, namely 'there can no longer be any painting without trash' (Meta-Trash, Folie). Contemporary painting (and art more widely) has much to benefit from elements that have classically been and continue to be considered undesirable in 'high art' such as camp, kitsch, the ornate, the bombastic and the pompous. What do we have to gain by removing 'trash' from art? Are we just limiting possibility? Is it time to progress pass the Bauhaus model of contemporary art presentation where objects are de-contextualised, elevated on plinths and hooks and fetishised in a white cube? Is trash the way out out?

John Currin, The Scream, 2010. Oil on Canvas. Gagosian Gallery.

John Currin, The Scream, 2010. Oil on Canvas. Gagosian Gallery.

drowning in a deep ecology

When you sit down and really analyse reporting on ecological issues and the representation of nature and natural system in the media, its anthropocentric quality becomes strikingly apparent; nature is most commonly positioned as an outcome of human desire, toil, rage, ignorance or abandonment. It makes you wonder:

What amount of nature is psychological?

This question has led to me to two key ecological philosophers: Arne Naess and Pierre-Felix Guattari. Both Naess and Guattari advocated for an understating of ecological sustainable that is not reductionist (more than mechanisms of facts, figures, description and prediction) but instead promotes ecological harmony of equilibrium, ecosophy.

Naess and Guattari agreed on many aspects of what constitutes an ‘ecosophy’, however they differ in their position of humans within the equation. To Naess, ecosopohy requires holistic thinking in which the biosphere is a single and unified whole, whereas Guattari centres social liberation at the heart of an ecological philosophy. 

Don't have an answer yet... but the Heidelberg Project is an interesting art/social justice/community building experiment to consider...

Mission

The Heidelberg Project (“HP”) is an outdoor art environment in the heart of an urban area and a Detroit based community organization with a mission to improve the lives of people and neighborhoods through art. 

Vision

The theory of change for the Heidelberg Project begins with the belief that all citizens, from all cultures, have the right to grow and flourish in their communities. The HP believes that a community can re-develop and sustain itself, from the inside out, by embracing its diverse cultures and artistic attributes as the essential building blocks for a fulfilling and economically viable way of life.

Read more at https://www.heidelberg.org/

cycles of function and form

‘feel forever feels’, an exhibition at Trocadero Art Space featuring a collaborative work of the same name created by myself and Shannon Garrett wrapped up on the 4th August. We’re very thankful that the show has been a great success and prompted many conversations centered on the theoretical framework of the exhibition and artwork.

‘feel forever feels’ is inspired by the concept of social sculpture/socially engaged practice as described by Joseph Beuys; an art theory that welcomes social context into art forms. Sofas (which are the focus of ‘feel forever feels’) are the perfect example of modern social sculptures. Selected by an individual based on personal determinations of design, comfort and aesthetic, sofas often transition from the personal realm of the home to public domains (Op Shops, lawns, fields etc.).

It is here, in public domains, after being shaped by the downward force of bodies over time and surviving disposal, that sofas communicate their accumulate wealth as collaborative, contemporary sculptures; objects that have survived the relatively short timeframes that we allow contemporary functional things to have.

The question is, in a system where the consumer is conditioned to ever expect the new and the tasteful (which is designed and delivered to our door), are we giving up diversity and variety in not only the objects that surround us, but also our cultures and our societies?

a next wave Neue Sachlichkeit

Describing the German art movement that rejected expressionism and advocated a ‘return to order’ with an emphasis on (then) contemporary lived reality, the Neue Sachlichkeit depicts a post-war satire that is relevant today. As we continue to understand more about the links between personal freedom, resource limitations, pleasure and climate change, so too comes the need to evaluate our co-existence logic (the orientation of human thinking with our environments).

Timothy Morton in his book ‘Dark Ecology, For a Logic of Coexistence’ provides a theoretical primer for understanding the position of the self within our contemporary environmental circumstances. Both depressing and uncanny, dark ecology aptly describes the current Neue Sachlichkeit, a lived, modern magic realism where the everyday appears logical and illogical, ordered and comprehendible yet on the periphery of understanding. As we continue to struggle to come to terms with what climate changes is and its ramifications, it is becoming increasingly clear that the logic of the Industrial Revolution can’t be applied to solving issues of ecological sustainability. Could a next wave Neue Sachlichkeit be a way forward?

Christian Schad, Operation, 1929. Lenbachhaus, Munchen, Germany.

Christian Schad, Operation, 1929. Lenbachhaus, Munchen, Germany.

simples feel that became complex

Tomorrow is the opening of 'feel forever feels’ at Trocadero Art Space in Fitzroy, a collaborative show between myself and the stunningly talented Shannon Garrrett examing what it means to be ‘forever’ within the context of globalisation. The show presents a series of photographs printed onto suspended double-backed white linen, each depicting a second-hand sofa. 

‘Discarded sofas are products that once embodied ‘newness’ and luxury before becoming worn and ‘out-of-date’ as a result of human use. They are relatable symbols of the contemporary relationship between visual experience, technology and wealth within the system of global modernism where aesthetics are formed, elevated as 'taste' (often through textiles and fashion), used and thrown away.’ 

The exhibition is inspired by the concept of 'social sculpture' as described by Joseph Bueys; a theoretical framework for understanding human activity that has played a part in shaping society or the environment as a form of art.

Make sure to check out the show. Click here for more details.

‘feel forever feels’ Supported by MEL&NYC PROGRAM MELBOURNE 2018 National Gallery of Victoria through the All Conference facilitated program MAKING SPACES.

feel forever feels (installation view), Shannon Garrett and Ren Gregorčič, 2017.

feel forever feels (installation view), Shannon Garrett and Ren Gregorčič, 2017.

x y x z

Drawing on graph paper seems to work for me. My drawing technique on graph paper generally involves using blue or green pigments that blend into the blue grid. I cam to know the grid through Rosalind Krauss’ ‘The originality of the avant-garde and other modernist myths’ from 1985 that includes a section on grid and its links with originality. I’ve read this so many times I had to buy the paperback version so I could highlight and write notes in the margins. Krauss makes some pretty salient points about the grid’s ability to create an aesthetically pure and ‘free’ surface through its ability to ‘figure the material ground of the pictorial object… an absolute beginning.’

I’ve been working with the grid as a surface to mirror my paternal family’s migration to Australia from post WWII Slovenia (then Yugoslavia) and my own understandings of what it means to form new identities on cultural memory. Simultaneously ‘free’ and restricted by repetitive uniformity, the grid to me represents a spatial conceptualisation of linear surface – a domain where ideas land without penetrating the paper material. Here, symbols are not fully committed to the realm of art but instead are represented as symbols self-conscious of their status as an image.

Carl Andre, Blue Lock, 1966 Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY via http://notations.aboutdrawing.org/carl-andre/

Carl Andre, Blue Lock, 1966 Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY via http://notations.aboutdrawing.org/carl-andre/

glittered absence

Is all that glitters in the 21st century art?

As perception (the organisation, identification and interpretation of stimulus) becomes increasingly favoured over cognition (the mental action of acquiring knowledge and understanding thought, experiences and perceptions) by contemporary art audiences (who understand 'good art' as axiomatic, aesthetic backdrops), I find myself questioning the validity of consumption behaviour as an artistic or cultural experience. 

Last week I went to see an exhibition in a well-known gallery that featured a number of works by significant 20th Century artists. It was interesting to observe which works people chose to engage with (colourful, 2D works were the most popular) as well as and how they chose to engage. Often individuals and groups would position themselves in front of selected artworks, take a photo, and then go onto the next piece and repeat. Sometimes without actually looking at the physical object itself.

Peter Coffin (Cultivated Identity) explains the mechanisms that drives this behaviour in his 2016 article 'Is Everything a Consumable?' (click here to read the full article);

Since we live in an environment where consumption-as-identity is so quickly adopted, this cultivation works to normalize consumptive behaviors with things that shouldn’t necessarily be viewed as a consumer/product metric.

This begs the question, exactly who is benefiting from the normalisation of consumptive behaviours in art?

Duane Hanson, Supermarket Lady, 1969-70

Duane Hanson, Supermarket Lady, 1969-70

joy in people [ repeating ]

Joy in People is the title of a 2012 exhibition by London artist Jeremy Deller, who adapts and appropriates cultural signs, symbols and language in the public domain into artworks that comment on social history, politics and socio-cultural concerns. Over the past couple of weeks I’ve been reading up on Deller’s practice, specifically his working methods and aesthetic outcomes of conceptual enquiry to understand my own. Over the past 10 years my practice has shed process in order to be more immediately responsive to not only own thoughts and political viewpoints but also to local and global events and the thoughts of others (which, in a contemporary setting, usually do not have much permanence). As someone who interrogates global modernism, I find myself using this working method to reflect the various states of ‘surviving’ and ‘thriving’ I see people in.

Increasingly, I find myself asking what mechanisms people are using to survive and how do these differ to those that have reached a level of prosperity? Is there any fundamental difference between the actions of those who survive and those who thrive? At what point does an action change from being that of one of survival and that of thriving? Thoughts that have come up after a stranger started talking to me about 'over-population' thinking I would agree and then was offended when I brought up 'over-consumption by the privileged'. He walked away. I kept thinking.

Jeremy Deller, Beyond the white walls, 2012.

Jeremy Deller, Beyond the white walls, 2012.